For military planners, cyberspace is a murky domain without the clearer lines that exist in physical warfare.
More complex threats require greater connectivity and intelligence sharing, which in turn requires a common framework that includes shared architectures, technology, policy and doctrine.
Balancing the need to make data accessible to all Marines while ensuring security is a challenge as the Marine Corps shifts to cloud computing.
The private sector has a lot of experience the Defense Department can exploit to speed efforts to secure computer networks from attack, according to industry executives.
Antiquated infrastructure is posing the biggest challenge to bringing the Army's new data network online -- but it's not the only challenge, says a senior commander.
Army leaders understand that time is short as the service prepares for a fourth round of testing how new technologies can securely fit into its tactical data network.
Congress isn't likely to pass cybersecurity legislation this year because the private sector is skeptical of government involvement and many Americans don't understand the urgent need for it.
With threats to its networks increasing, the Pentagon's approach to cyber warfare is focusing more on a quick response rather than a perfect solution.
Effective cyber defense comes from following the basic rules of military strategy, says the Army's former CIO.